Blood Pressure Reading [ULTIMATE GUIDE]


Blood pressure isn’t a medical issue as people think; it is the strength at which the blood is being pushed against the blood vessels.

It becomes a medical issue when it is low or high and the challenge people face is how they can regulate their blood pressure.

This is going to be addressed here as I will advise you read every bit of this article because am going to be sharing my view as a physiologist.

What you will find on this post

  • How does the Heart works?
  • Normal Blood pressure
  • Blood Pressure chart
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Low Blood Pressure
  • Do you know the state of your Blood Pressure?
  • The Importance of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring
  • Top Blood Pressure Trackers
  • What medication is used to treat hypertension?

The Human heart is a muscular organ that is responsible for pumping blood into the circulatory system (arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins and vena cava).

Under normal condition, the heartbeat should be 72/minute and during each beat, the blood pressure varies between the systolic and diastolic. Note: The systolic is the contraction of the heart and the diastolic is the relaxation of the heart.

blood pressure monitor

The blood pressure occurs as a result of the pumping action of the heart and when the heart beats, it pumps blood and the blood is circulated around the body to give energy and nutrients to where needed.

As stated earlier that the blood pressure varies between the systolic and diastolic, let me explain so that you can understand.

The systolic blood pressure is the maximum pressure exerted in the arteries during the contraction of the heart and its value ranges from 110 to 140 mm Hg, while the diastolic blood pressure is the minimum pressure in the arteries during the relaxation of the heart and its value ranges from 60 to 80 mm Hg.

Normal Blood Pressure

Have you ever thought of what will happen if the blood remains in the heart and not be pumped out? It will lead to medical problems such as the heart problem, stroke, and heart failure. And that is one good reason normal blood pressure is ideal for every human as it helps to pump blood out of the heart to where needed.

The normal blood pressure you should have is 120/80 mm Hg systolic/diastolic. This is the ideal range for everyone who desires to live healthily as any persistence range above this will lead to high blood pressure.

Blood pressure Chart

This chart is suitable for adults and children of any age to know what their blood pressure means.

blood pressure chart

Blood pressure isn’t only altered by pathology conditions but also by physiological conditions.

Physiological Variation


In females, up to the period of menopause, the blood pressure is low compared to males. And after menopause, the pressure in woman becomes equal to that of males.

Body Physique

The blood pressure is more in obese person than in lean person


The blood pressure is slightly low in early mornings. It gradually increases and reaches the maximum at noon.

After meals

The blood pressure increases for few hours after meals due to increase in cardiac output.

During sleep

The blood pressure is reduced up to 15-20 mm HG during deep sleep.

Emotional condition

During excitement or anxiety, the blood pressure is increased due to the release of adrenaline.

After Exercise

After exercise, the systolic pressure increases by 20-30 mm Hg above the normal level because of the increase in contraction.

Those are the physiological cases where blood pressure can be altered, so if you noticed a slight change in your blood pressure you don’t have any cause to worry as it will regulate itself in the meantime.

What happens when Blood pressure is too high or too low?

As explained above, blood pressure can as well be a little low and a little high due to some physiological changes. The blood pressure is brought back to normal with the help of the regulatory mechanisms in the body. But when it becomes too high it leads to hypertension and hypotension when it is too low.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is also known as hypertension, it is the persistence of blood pressure in the wall of the arteries. It means that the systolic pressure remains elevated above 140 mm Hg while the diastolic is above 80 mm Hg.

High blood pressure is mostly referred to as “silent killer” as many people have it without knowing it and this is because it has no symptoms and it can damage the arteries and some vital organs in the body when not treated.

Hypertension is in two stages

  • Primary hypertension: Systolic mm Hg 140-159, and Diastolic mm Hg 90-99
  • Secondary hypertension: Systolic mm Hg over 160, and Diastolic mm Hg over 100
high blood pressure complications
Complications of Hypertension

Primary Hypertension

This increase in blood pressure does not cause any harm. The high blood pressure occurs because of the increase in the peripheral resistance, which occurs due to some unknown causes.

During the early stage of this condition, there is an increase in the systolic and diastolic pressure. However, during the resting condition such as sleeping, the blood pressure returns to normal level.

Once the elevated blood pressure can’t return to its normal range then it has become severe hypertension which is the leading cause of cardiac and renal diseases.

Secondary Hypertension

This is quite different from the primary as the elevation of this blood pressure is caused by some underlying disorders.

The secondary has different forms such as:

Cardiovascular Hypertension

This type of high blood pressure is the major cause of early death or damages of some vital organs for overweight and obese people. This happens as a result of the blockage of the blood vessels with plaque known as atherosclerosis. These plaques are fats, calcium, and other substances which cause a blockage in the wall of the arteries hindering the normal flow of blood.

Renal Hypertension

One of the renal diseases that cause hypertension is the stenosis of renal arteries. The condition is known as the narrowing of the arteries that are responsible for carrying blood to one or both of the kidneys.

Endocrine Hypertension

Endocrine hypertension is developed because of the hyperactivity of some of the endocrine glands such as excess secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

Most people don’t experience any of the symptoms listed below until they reach the systolic of 180 mm Hg and diastolic of 110 mm Hg.

The symptoms of High blood pressure include:

  • Headaches which last for days
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred or impaired vision
  • Epistaxis
  • Palpitations i.e irregular beating of the heart
  • Dyspnea; also known as shortness of breath.

Causes of High Blood Pressure

What causes high blood pressure isn’t clear but there are some certain things that can increase the risk.

You’re 70% likely to have high blood pressure if you are:

  • Overweight or obese
  • Have a relative with high blood pressure
  • Consume too much salt and don’t eat enough fruit and vegetables
  • Don’t exercise regularly
  • Drink too much alcohol or coffee (or other caffeine-based drinks)
  • Are a smoker
  • Don’t get much sleep or have disturbed sleep
  • Are over the age of 65

Living a healthy life demands you take things that help reduce the risk of having high blood pressure and help you keep it under control if you are diagnosed with it.

Low Blood Pressure

This is also referred to as Hypo-tension; it is when the systolic pressure is less than 90 mm Hg. People with low blood pressure are not easily prone to heart or renal disorders, but in some instances, it can be a sign of serious disorder and can be life-threatening.

Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure

Doctors don’t consider low blood pressure as something serious as long as no symptoms are present but when it causes some signs listed below, it is considered as a severe disorder.

People with low blood pressure have a sign of;

  • Dizziness or lightheaded
  • Fainting
  • Dehydration and unusual thirst
  • Lack of coordination and balance
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea
  • Cold, clammy, pale skin
  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Depression

Causes of Low Blood Pressure

  • Pregnancy
  • Heart problems
  • Endocrine problems: Hypo-activity of the pituitary gland and adrenal glands lead to a great drop in blood pressure.
  • Dehydration
  • Blood loss: Blood loss from injuries can lead to low blood count in the body thereby causing a drop in the blood pressure.
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis): This is a potentially life-threatening reaction. It can cause difficulty in respiration, body itching, swollen throat and a sudden drop in the blood pressure.
  • Lack of nutrients in your diet: Lack of vitamins like B12 can lead to anemia which occurs as a result of low production of red blood cells in the body.

Do you Know the State of Your Blood Pressure?

It is expedient that you should know your blood pressure just to avoid the risk of damaging some vital body organs. A larger percentage of U.S.A citizens has high blood pressure and this causes many casualties just because they don’t check the state of their blood pressure.

This is one major reason the Heart Association of the United States of America recommends the use of a home blood pressure monitor. A home blood pressure tracker can help you to monitor your blood pressure.

Importance of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

Home blood pressure monitoring has been recommended by physicians, doctors, nurses, diabetes educators and healthcare experts for anyone who has high blood pressure, family history of hypertension or heart diseases. This monitor provides you with great information for you to understand and manage your blood pressure.

measuring blood pressure

Physicians suggest that patients should use this home monitor to track their blood pressure because they can achieve excellent result when in a relaxed state due to the fact that blood pressure can be altered by some factors such as stress, emotional fluctuation, clinic phobia and physical exertion. This tracker helps your physician to perfectly evaluate the effectiveness or need for medication.

Who should use Home Blood Pressure Monitor?

Home blood pressure tracker is useful to:

  • Patients who want to daily monitor their blood pressure.
  • Those who have been diagnosed with hypertension i.e their systolic is above 140 mm and diastolic is above 80 mm HG.
  • Those  who desire to have a consistent check on their blood pressure
  • Pregnant women, and that’s because pregnancy-induced hypertension can occur suddenly.
  • Those suspected of having masked hypertension
  • Those starting High Blood Pressure treatment to determine its effectiveness
  • Those with coronary heart disease, diabetes, and kidney disease
  • Elderly patients, because the white-coat effect increases progressively with age

Benefits of Using a Home Blood Monitor

Help with early diagnosis

High blood pressure develops fully just after pre-hypertension and some doctors believe that early detection of pre-hypertension can help such individual reduce the risk of having hypertension.

Help monitor your treatment

The best way to know if your medication is working is to check your blood pressure on a daily basis. The use of this home device helps your doctor to make some important decision about your treatment, such as changing or stopping your medications.

Reduce your health care costs

Monitoring your blood pressure at home will help to reduce your number of visits to the clinic.

Check if your blood pressure differs outside the doctor’s office

Some people experience a sudden increase in their blood pressure as a result of apprehension correlated with seeing a doctor. Monitoring blood pressure at home can help determine if you have true high blood pressure.

Best Home Blood Pressure Monitors

Here is a summary of the top blood pressure trackers:

1. Panasonic EW3109W Portable Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor

The Panasonic EW3109W Portable Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor is a tracker that is designed to measure individual systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate with the aid of a pressurized cuff on the arm.

Panasonic EW3109W Portable Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor

Panasonic blood pressure monitors are among the best because it is easy to use, reliable, accurate and clinically validated. It is ideal for anyone who desires to track his/her blood pressure anywhere and anytime because of its portability.

With Panasonic EW3109W Portable Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor you don’t have to worry about the accuracy of your result as this tracker comes with great features that help individuals to effectively track and manage their blood pressure.

Things you should know about this tracker

  • It has an Alert system
  • Large LCD Display Screen
  • It is Accurate and Consistent
  • Fully automatic


  • Accuracy
  • Full Automatic
  • Irregular heartbeat detector
  • High blood pressure flash
  • Large memory capacity
  • Instruction Manual
  • Two years warranty
  • Adult cuff size 19.7 to 40 cm
  • Portable
  • 90 memory reading storage
  • Monitor and Large LCD display screen

Read Review on Amazon

2. UA-1030T Talking Blood Pressure Monitor

The A & D medical pro talking blood pressure monitor also referred to as UA- 1030T offers users the option of Tricheck reading which is equivalent to those using stethoscope auscultation methods.

UA-1030T Talking Blood Pressure Monitor

This blood pressure monitor is recommended by the American Heart Association for those who love to keep tabs on their blood pressure. The readings taken with this tracker are equivalent to those taken using a stethoscope for blood pressure monitoring.

What You Should Know About this Tracker

  • SmoothFit Cuff
  • Advanced Warning System
  • Irregular Heartbeat Detection
  • One Button Operation
  • Pressure Rating Indicator
  • Large LCD Display Screen


  • Automatic monitor using micro-pump
  • 90 reading storage space
  • Irregular heartbeat detector
  • User’s manual
  • Safety case
  • AC Adapter
  • Pressure rating indicator
  • SmoothFit cuff 9.0″-14.6″
  • Advanced warning system
  • Talking monitor
  • Pressure Rating Indicator

Read Review on Amazon

What Medication is Used to Treat Hypertension?

High blood pressure medication is also known as anti-hypertensive which help to lower high blood pressure. There are lots of high blood pressure medications such as; Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, ‘Water’ tablets (diuretics), Beta-blockers, Calcium-channel blockers and Angiotensin receptor blockers.

The goal of every hypertensive patient is to bring down the level of their blood pressure and this doesn’t necessarily mean that they should take blood pressure medications right away. Your healthcare physician or doctor should be the one to make this decision for you and this is because each of the drugs listed above has their own side effects.

Everyone is different and therefore the medication that works for Mr. A might not work for Mr. B and this is because the effectiveness of every drug depends on the patient age, medical history, medical problem and this is why it is advisable that your doctor should go through some steps to find the right drug for you.


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